The concept of full-stack was pronounced dead at the close of 2019.
2020 Stack is the new name for the new generation.


Test layer

Development stack

Test twice, run once. Every line of code has it's purpose, and every line of code needs to be exercised twice: once in the affirmative and once in the negative. Good software engineering practices require this type of unit testing because once a system is deployed you don't want to be making changes.


Five-layers of software for software development:

But a good testing regime requires much more than unit tests. Consider these other important elements: system testing to make sure the pieces interact correctly; stress testing to understand how the system fails under heavy loads; link validity testing to make sure that the Internet flux hasn't changed since you last visited your out-of-site hyperlinks; and standards compliance testing to make sure your CSS, HTML, and JavaScript pass all validation checks.