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Shell layer

System stack

Linux without a shell access is like a Mac without a mouse. But Linux power users get more done precisely because there is no mouse. Small programs that do one thing well is a design philosophy that epitomizes the Linux world; getting comfortable with which command is the right one for the job, is half the struggle; getting up to speed with actually using those commands to improve your daily productivity is the other half—just what do all those switches really do?

Shell commands fall into several broad categories: directories, files, discovery, file systems, security, installation, networking, logging, administration, and compression. Here are some commonly used commands:

category command useful switches task
Directories cd Change to a new directory.
mkdir Make a new directory.
rmdir Delete and existing directory.
pwd Show full path of current working directory.
ln -s Create a symbolic link to a file or directory.
Files less Display a file's contents a page at a time.
head -n Display the first few lines of a long file.
tail -n Display the last few lines of a long file.
cat Display an entire file (without stopping).
cp Copy a file.
mv Move a file.
rename Rename a file.
rm Delete a file.
touch Create an empty file.
pico Edit a file. (use 'x' to exit)
Discovery ls -lia List directory contents.
locate Find a file when you only know its name.
find -name Find files that match certain criteria.
grep -r Find all files that contain a given string.
apropos Find a Linux command that has something to do with . . .
man Show help text for a command
File systems mount Mount a device.
umount Unmount a device.
df -h Show disk free space.
du /path/ -sh Show disk usage for a directory.
sfdisk -l List partition table.
fsck Check and repair file system errors after rough shutdown.
Security adduser Create a new user account.
passwd Set the password for an account.
id Show current user's numeric id and group id.
chown Change the file owner.
chgrp Change the file group membership.
chmod 700 - Change file permissions.
710 e
720 w
740 r
sudo Execute a super-user command.
Installation yum search
Download and install a utility, service, or application.
uname -a Show Linux kernel number.
Networking ping Check for reachability.
ifconfig Show NIC status.
ifup Bring a NIC online.
ifdown Take a NIC offline.
traceroute Show host-to-host hops.
iptables -L Show firewall rules.
nslookup Use DNS to find a domain address.
nmap -sS Scan a host for listening ports.
netstat -tea
Show status of listening and established TCP connections.
tcpdump TCP/IP packet analyzer.
Logging who Show who is currently logged in.
w Show who is currently logged in.
last Show successful logins.
lastb Show unsuccessful attempts.
Administration ps axu Current processes.
pstree -pG Current processes in tree format.
kill Terminate a process.
top Show real-time activity and usage.
free Show memory usage.
uptime How long has this computer been up.
shutdown Shutdown.
Compression tar cvpzf Create a compressed .tgz tarball
tar xzf Extract a .tgz tarball.
gzip -c Compress into .gz file.
gunzip -c Decompress from .gz file.